Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in White Rice

Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice, and germinated brown rice.
J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jul 28;52(15):4808-13.
Tian S, Nakamura K, Kayahara H.
Department of Science of Biological Resources, United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.

Two hydroxycinnamate sucrose esters, 6'-O-(E)-feruloylsucrose and 6'-O-(E)-sinapoylsucrose, were isolated from methanol extracts of rice bran. Soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds as well as 6'-O-(E)-feruloylsucrose and 6'-O-(E)-sinapoylsucrose from white rice, brown rice, and germinated brown rice were analyzed using HPLC. The results demonstrated that the content of insoluble phenolic compounds was significantly higher than that of soluble phenolics in rice, whereas almost all compounds identified in germinated brown rice and brown rice were more abundant than those in white rice. 6'-O-(E)-Feruloylsucrose (1.09 mg/100 g of flour) and 6'-O-(E)-sinapoylsucrose (0.41 mg/100 g of flour) were found to be the major soluble phenolic compounds in brown rice. During germination, an approximately 70% decrease was observed in the content of the two hydroxycinnamate sucrose esters, whereas free phenolic acid content increased significantly; the ferulic acid content of brown rice (0.32 mg/100 g of flour) increased to 0.48 mg/100 g of flour and became the most abundant phenolic compound in germinated brown rice. The content of sinapinic acid increased to 0.21 mg/100 g of flour, which is nearly 10 times as much as that in brown rice (0.02 mg/100 g of flour). In addition, the total content of insoluble phenolic compounds increased from 18.47 mg/100 g of flour in brown rice to 24.78 mg/100 g of flour in germinated brown rice. These data suggest that appropriate germination of brown rice may be a method to improve health-related benefits.