Glucosinolates

Below are research articles on glucosinolates and their relationship to seeds, sprouts, crucifer plants, and/or cancer.  This is included the SproutNet to help promote cancer research with glucosinolates, of which crucifer sprouts, such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, etc, are the greatest natural source.

Agerbirk, N., Olsen, C.E., and Sørensen, H.  Initial and Final Products, Nitriles, and Ascorbigens Produced in Myrosinase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Indole Glucosinolates.  J. Agric Food Chem. 1989, 46, 1563-1571.

Albert-Puleo M.  Physiological effects of cabbage with reference to its potential as a dietary cancer-inhibitor and its use in ancient medicine.  J Ethnopharmacol 1983;9:261-72

Alink, G.M., et al., Effect of cooking and of vegetables and fruit on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats, 1992, in the book: Food and Cancer Prevention:  Chemical and Biological Aspects by Waldron, Johnson and Fenwick (Eds) 

Al-Shehbaz, I.A. and Al-Shammary, K.I. Distribution and Chemotaxonomic Significance of Glucosinolates in Certain Middle-Eastern Cruciferae. Biochem. Systemat. Ecol. 1987, 15, 559-569.

Alvarez, R.A. and Moore, C.B. Quantum Yield for Production of CH3NC in the Photolysis of CH3NCS. Science 1994, 263, 205-207.

Andersen, A.S. and Muir, R.M. Auxin Activity of Glucobrassicin. Phys. Plantarum 1966, 19, 1038-1048.

Anderson, J.L., Lisk, D.J., and Stoewsand, G.S.  Glucosinolates in Rutabaga Grown in Soil Capped Over Coal Fly Ash.  J. Food Sci. 1990, 55, 556-557.

Andersson, Annica A M., Merker, Arnult; Nilsson, Peter; Sorensen, Hilmer, and Per Aman.  Chemical composition of the potential new oilseed corps Barbarea vulgaris, Barbarea verna, and Lepidium Campestre, Journal of sc of Food and Ga. 79:179-186, 1999

Angus, J.F., Gardner, P.A., Kirkegaard, J.A., and Desmarchelier, J.M. Biofumigation: Isothiocyanates Released from Brassica roots Inhibit Growth of the Take-all Fungus. Plant and Soil 1994, 162, 107-112.

Arens, M. and Fiebig, H.-J.  Glucosinolate (Röntgenfluoreszenzanalyse)-Gemeinschaftsarbeiten der DGF, 122. Mitteilung: Deutsche Einheitsmethoden zur Untersuchung von Fetten, Fettprodukten, Tensiden und verwandten Stoffen, 93. Mitt.: Analyse von Fettrohstoffen XI.  Fat Sci. Tech. 1991, 93, 268-270.

Aruoma, I. O., et al, Antioxidant and Pro-Oxidant Actions of Dietary Components, 1992, in the book: Food and Cancer Prevention:  Chemical and Biological Aspects by Waldron, Johnson and Fenwick (Eds

Ascard, J. and Jonasson, T. White Mustard Meal Interesting for Weed Control. In Weeds and Weed Control. Reports. 32nd Swedish Crop Protection Conference. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences: Uppsala, 1991; pp. 139-155.

Ashley, M.G. and Leigh, B.L.  The Actionof Metham-sodium in Soil. Development of an Analytical Method for the Determination of Methyl Isothiocyanate Residues in Soil.  J. Sci. Food Agric. 1963, 14, 148-152.

Aspray, K.E.; L.F.Bjeldanes, Effects fo dietary broccoli and butylated hydroxayanisole on liver-mediated metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene, Fd Chem Toxic. Vol 21 No.2, p 133-142

Bailey, S.D., Bazinet, M.L., Driscoll, J.L., and McCarthy, A.I. The Volatile Components of Cabbage. J. Food Sci. 1961, 26, 163-170.

Balenovi, et al., Synthesis of (.+-.) Sulphoraphene, Tetrahedron, 22:2139-2143 (1966). 

Barcelo, S., J.M. Gardiner, A. Gescher, and J.K. Chipman. 1996. CYP2E1-mediated mechanism of anti-genotoxicity of the broccoli constituent sulforaphane. Carcinogenesis 17:277-282.  (also see Paolini M, Biagi GL, Cantelli-Forti G, Re: Barcelo, S., Gardiner, J.M., and Gescher, A. and Chipman, J.K. (1996) CYP2E1-mediated mechanism of anti-genotoxicity of the broccoli constituent sulforaphane. Carcinogenesis 1997 Jul;18(7):1435-6)

Barrett et al., "Protective Effect of Cruciferous Seed Meals Against Mouse Colon Cancer", Cereal Foods World 613, vol. 39, No. 8, pp. 613, Aug. 1994.

Barale R, zucconi D, Bertrani R, Loprieno. Vegetables inhibit, in vivo, the mutagenicity of nitrite combined with nitrosabel compounds.  Musat Res 1983;120:145-50.

Bardlow, Diet and Breast Cancer, 1992, in the book: Food and Cancer Prevention:  Chemical and Biological Aspects by Waldron, Johnson and Fenwick (Eds)

Bartlet, E., Parsons, D., Williams, I.H., and Clark, S.J. The Influence of glucosinolates and Sugars on Feeding by the Cabbage stem flea Beetle, Psyliodes chrysocephala. Ent. Exp. Appl. 1994, 73, 77-83.

Basten, G., Williamson, G. & Bao, Y-P.2000 The induction of UGT1A1 by dietary phytochemicals found in broccoli (poster). DMW Conference, St Andrews, Scotland, 9-18 June 2000

Bäuerle, R., Wagner, H., and Schraudolf, H.  Distribution of 4-methoxy-3-indolylmethyl-glucosinolate (4-methoxy-glucobrassicin) in Brassicaceae.   Experientia 1986, 42, 86.

Beecher, Christopher  Cancer Preventive Properties of Varieties of Brassica Oleracea: a Review, AM J Clin Nutrition 1994;59 pp. 1166-1170. GREAT ARTICLE!!!!! 

Beekhuis, H.A. Technology and Industrial Applications. In Chemistry and Biochemistry of Thiocyanic Acid and its Derivatives. Newman, A.A., Ed.; Academic Press: London, 1975; pp. 222-255.

Bell, D.T. and Muller, C.H. Dominance of California Annual Grasslands by Brassica nigra. Amer. Midl. Nat. 1973 90, 277-299.

Benn, M. 1977. Glucosinolates. - Pure and Appl. Chem. 49: 197-210.

Bertelli, Davied, Maria Plessi, et al.  Separation by solid phase extraction and quantification by reverse phase HPLC of sulforaphane in broccoli.  Food Chem, Vol 63, No. 3., PP 417-21; 1998

Betts, P.M., Rinder, D.F., and Fleeker, J.R. Thiocyanate Utilization by an Arthrobacter. Can. J. Microbiol. 1979, 25, 1277-1282.

Betz, J.M. and Fox, W.D. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Glucosinolates in Brassica Vegetables.  ASC Symposium Series 546 (Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention I).  1994; pp. 181-196.), Chapter 14 in the book Food, Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention I, Fruits and Vegetables, Mou-Taun Huang, (ed), Developed from 1992 symposium

Betz, J.M. and Page, S.W.  Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Intact, Non-Derivatized Glucosinolates from Brassicaceae.  Planta Med. 1990, 56, 590-591.

Bhardwaj, H.L., A.A. Hamama, D.M. Porter, and P.F. Reese, Jr. 1996. Rapeseed meal as a natural pesticide. p. 615-619. In: J. Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops. ASHS Press, Arlington, VA

Bialy, Z., Oleszek, W., Lewis, J., and Fenwick, G.R. Allelopathic Potential of Glucosinolates (Mustard Oil Glycosides) and their Degradation Products Against Wheat. Plant and Soil 1990, 129, 277-281.

Bible, B.B.  Relationship of Crucifer Toxin to Phytotoxicity of Crucifer Residue.  HortScience 1986, 21, 264.

Bilsborrow, P.E., Evans, E.J., Murray, F., and Zhao, F.J.  Glucosinolate Changes in Developing Pods of Single and Double Low Varieties of Autumn-sown Oilseed Rape (B. napus).  Ann. appl. Biol. 1993, 122, 135-143.

Bingham, Plant cell wall material and cancer protection, 1992, in the book: Food and Cancer Prevention:  Chemical and Biological Aspects by Waldron, Johnson and Fenwick (Eds)

Birch, A.N.E., Griffiths, D.W., Hopkins, R.J., Macfarlane Smith, W.H., and McKinlay, R.G. Glucosinolate Responses of Swede, Kale, Forage and Oilseed Rape to Root Damage by Turnip Root Fly (Delia floralis) Larvae. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1992, 60, 1-9.

Birt DF, Pelling JC, Pour PM, Tibbels MG, Schweikert L, Bresnick E. The effects of diets enreiched in cabbage and collards on murine pulmonary metatasis.  Carcinogenesis 1987;8;913-7.

BJELKE E. Dietary factors and the epidemiology of cancer of the stomach and large bowel. In: Kasper H, ed. Aktuelle Probleme der Klinischen Diatetik: Erkrankungen des Verdauungstraktes. Stuttgart: Thieme, 1978: 10-17.

Björkman, R. & Janson, J.C. 1972. Studies on myrosinases. I. Purification and characterization of a myrosinase from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.). - Biochim. Biophys. Acta 276: 508-518.

Björkman, R. & Lönnerdal, B. 1973. Studies on myrosinases. III. Enzymatic properties of myrosinases from Sinapis alba and Brassica napus seeds. - Biochim. Biophys. Acta 327: 121-131.

Björkman, R.  Preparative Isolation and 35S-Labelling of Glucosinolates from Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).  Acta Chem. Scand. 1972, 26, 1111-1116.

Björkman, R. Interaction Between Proteins and Glucosinolate Isothiocyanates and Oxazolidinethiones from Brassica napus Seed. Phytochemistry 1973, 12, 1585-1590.

Björkman, R. Properties and Function of Plant Myrosinases. In The Biology and Chemistry of the Cruciferae. Vaughan, J.G., MacLeod, A.J., and Jones, B.M.G. Ed.; Academic Press: London, 1976; pp. 191-205.

Bjorn, et.al, Effects of Glucosinolates on the nutritive value of Rapeseed, 1984 Advanced in the production and utilization of cruciferous crops,  Proceedings fo a seninar in the Copenhagen, 11-13 Sept 1984

Blau, P.A., Feeny, P., and Contardo, L. Allylglucosinolate and Herbivorous Caterpillars: A Contrast in Toxicity and Tolerance. Science 1978, 200, 1296-1298.

Block G, Patterson B, Subar A. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr Cancer 1992;12:1-29

Bodnaryk, R.P. Effects of Wounding on Glucosinolates in the Cotyledons of Oilseed Rape and Mustard. Phytochemistry. 1992, 31, 2671-2677.

Bodnaryk, R.P. and Palaniswamy, P.Glucosinolate Levels in Cotyledons of Mustard, Brassica juncea L. and Rape, B. napus L. do Not Determine Feeding Rates of Flea Beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze). J. Chem. Ecol. 1990, 16, 2735-2746.

Bogaards, JJP, van Ommen B, Falke HE, Willems MI, van Bladeren PJ.  Glutathione S-transferase subunit induction patterns of Brussls sprouts, ally isothiocyanates and goitrin in rat liver and small intestine mucosa:  a new approach for the identification of inducing xenobiotics.  Food Chem Toxicol 1990:28:81-8

Bones, A.M & Iversen, T.-H. 1985. Myrosin cells and myrosinase. - Isr. J. Bot. 34: 351-375.

Bones, A.M. and J.T. Rossiter. 1996. The myrosinase-glucosinolate system, its organization and biochemistry. Physiol. Plant. 97:194-208.

Bones, A.M.  Distribution of ß-Thioglucosidase Activity in Intact Plants, Cell, and Tissue Cultures and Regenerant Plants of Brassica napus L.  J. Experimental Botany 1990, 41, 737-744.

Bones, A.M. 1991. Compartmentation and molecular properties of thioglucoside glucohydrolase (myrosinase). Dr-thesis. Unigen Center for Molecular Biology, Department of Botany, University of Trondheim, pp. 1-195.

Bones, A.M., Visvalingam, S. & Thangstad, O.P. 1994. Sulphate can induce differential expression of thioglucoside glucohydrolases (myrosinases). - Planta 193: 558-566.

Bones, A. and Slupphaug, G. Purification, Characterization and Partial Amino Acid Sequencing of ß-thioglucosidase from Brassica napus L.  J. Plant Physiol. 1989, 134, 722-729.

Bonnesen, Christine,; Stephensen, P.U.; Andersen, Ole; Sorense, H.; Vang, Ole;  Modulation of Cytochrome P-450 and Glutathione S-Transferase Isoform Expression In Vivo by Intact and Degraded Indolyl Glucosinolates.  Nutrition and Cancer 33(2), 178-187, 1999

Booth, E.J., K.C. Walker and D.W. Griffiths. 1991. A time course study of the effect of sulphur on glucosinolates in soilseed rape (Brassica napus) from the vegetative stage to maturity. J. Sci. Food Agric. 56:479-493.

Borek, V., Elberson, L.R., McCaffrey, J.P. and Morra, M.J. Toxicity of Aliphatic and Aromatic Isothiocyanates to Eggs of the Black Vine Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 1995, 88, 1192-1196.

Borek, V., Morra, M.J., Brown, P.D., and McCaffrey, J.P. Allelochemicals Produced during Sinigrin Decomposition in Soil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1994, 42, 1030-1034.

Borek, V., Morra, M.J., Brown, P.D., and McCaffrey, J.P. Transformation of the Glucosinolate-derived Allelochemicals Allyl Isothiocyanate and Allyl Nitrile in Soil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1995, 43, 1935-1940.

Borek, V., Morra, M.J. and McCaffrey, J.P.  Myrosinase Activity in Soil Extracts.  Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1996, 60, 1792-1797.

Boyd, J.N.; Babish, J.G.; Stoewsand, G.S.; Modification by Beet and Cabbage diets of alfatoxin B1-induced Rat Plasma a-Foetoprotein elevation, hepatric tumorogenesis, and mutagenicy of Urine, Food Chem Toxic. Vol. 20. pp.47-52, 1982

Boydston, R.A. and Hang, A.  Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Green Manure Crop Suppresses Weeds in Potato (Solanum tubersum).  Weed Technol. 1995, 9, 669-675.

Bradfield, C. A. and Bjeldanes, L. F, High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Anticarcinogenic Indoles in Brassica Oleracea, J. Agric. Food Chem. 1987, 35, 46-49.

Bradfield CA, Bjeldanes LF, Effect of dietary indole-3-carbinol on intestinal and hepatic monooxygenase, glutathion S-transferase and epoxide hydrolast activities in the rat, Food Chem Toxic. Vol. 22, No.12,  pp.977-982, 1984

Bradfield, C.A. and L.F. Bjeldanes. 1987. Structure-activity relationships of dietary indoles: A proposed mechanism of action as modifiers of xenobiotic metabolism. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 21:311-323.

Bradfield CA, Bjeldanes LF., Modification of carcinogen metabolism by indolylic autolysis products of Brassica oleraceae. Adv Exp Med Biol 1991;289:153-63

Bresnick E, Birt DF, Wolterman K, Wheeler M, Markin RS.  Reduction in mammary tumorogenesis in the rat by cabbage and cabbage residue.  Carcinogenesis 1990;11:1159-63

Brown, P.D. and Morra, M.J. Ion Chromatographic Determination of SCN- in Soils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1991, 39, 1226-1228.

Brown, P.D. and Morra, M.J. Fate of Ionic Thiocyanate (SCN-) in Soil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1993, 41, 978-982.

Brown, P.D. and Morra, M.J. Glucosinolate-containing Plant Tissues as Bioherbicides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1995, 43, 3070-3074.

Brown, P.D. and Morra, M.J. Hydrolysis Products of Glucosinolates in Brassica napus Tissues as Inhibitors of Seed Germination. Plant Soil 1996, 181, 307-316.

Brown, P.D. and Morra, M.J. Control of Soil-Borne Plant Pests Using Glucosinolate-Containing Plants. Adv. Agron. 1997, 61, 167-231.

Brown, P.D., Morra, M.J., and Borek, V. Gas Chromatography of Allelochemicals Produced during Glucosinolate Degradation in Soil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1994, 42, 2029-2034.

Brown, P.D., Morra, M.J., McCaffrey, J.P., Auld, D.L., and Williams, L. III. Allelochemicals Produced during Glucosinolate Degradation in Soil. J. Chem. Ecol. 1991, 17, 2021-2034.

Bubel, Nancy, The Seed-Starters Handbook,, Rodale Press, 1978.

Buchwaldt, L., Larsen, L.M., Plöger, A. & Sørensen, H. 1986. Fast polymer liquid chromatography isolation and characterization of plant myrosinase, b-thioglucoside glucohydrolase, isoenzymes. - J. Chromatography 363: 71-80.

Burke, D.G. and Cominos, X.  Identification of Desulfoglucosinolates Using Positive-Ion Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 1988, 36, 1184-1187.

Buskov, Steen, et. Al.   Determination of Ascorbigens in Autolysates of Various Brassica Species Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, J. Agric. Food Chem, 2000, 46, pp 2693-2701.

Canerni, Prloiferative activity in the colon of healthy subjects in two Italian cities with different dietary habits. , 1992, in the book: Food and Cancer Prevention:  Chemical and Biological Aspects by Waldron, Johnson and Fenwick (Eds)

Campbell, A.G. A Germination Inhibitor and Root-growth Retarder in Chou moellier (Brassica oleracea var.). Nature 1959, 183, 1263-1264.

Cao, Guohua, et.al, Antioxidant Capacity of Tea and Common Vegetables, 996, USDA_ARS

Carlson, D.G., Daxenbichler, M.E., Tookey, H.L., Kwolek, W.F., Hill, C.B., and Williams, P.H. Glucosinolates in Turnip Tops and Roots: Cultivars Grown for Greens and/or Roots. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1987, 112(1), 179-183.

Carlson, D.G., Daxenbichler, M.E., VanEtten, C.H., Kwolek, W.F. &
Williams, P.H. (1987) Glucosinolates in crucifer vegetables: broccoli,
Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, collards, kale, mustard greens, and
kohlrabi. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 112(1), 173-178.

Carlson, D.G., Daxenbichler, M.E., Van Etten, C.H., Tookey, H.L., Hill, C.B. and Williams, P.H.   1985.Glucosinolates in radish cultivars. J. Amer. Soc. Hort.   Sci. 110:634-638.

Carlson, D. G.; Daxenbichler, M. E.; VanEtten, C. H.; Tookey, M. L.; and Williams, P. H. Glucosinolates in crucifer vegetables; turnips and rutabagas. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29: 1235-1239, 1981

Carlson, DG; Tookey, H.L.; Hill, C.B., Willians, P., Variation in Glucosinolates in Oriental Brassica Vegetables, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sct 112(2):309:313.  1978

Chae, Y.M. and Tabatabai, M.A.Colorimetric Determination of Allyl Isothiocyanate. Analyt. Lett. 1983, 16, 1197-1206.

Challenger, F. The Natural Mustard Oil Glucosides and the Related Isothiocyanates and Nitriles. In Aspects of the Organic Chemistry of Sulphur. Academic Press: New York, 1959; pp. 115-161.

Chan, M.K.Y. and Close, R.C. Aphanomyces Root Rot of Peas 3. Control by the use of Cruciferous Amendments. N.Z.J. Agric. Res. 1987, 30, 225-233.

Chavadej, S., Brisson, N., McNeil, J.N., and De Luca, V.  Redirection of Tryptophan Leads to Production of Low Indole Glucosinolate Canola.  Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. USA 1994, 91, 2166-2170.

Chen, C.-W. and Ho, C.-T.  Thermal Degradation of Allyl Isothiocyanate in Aqueous Solution.  J. Agric. Food Chem. 1998, 46, 220-223.

Chevolleau, S., Gasc, N., Rollin, P., and Tulliez, J.  Enzymatic, Chemical, and Thermal Breakdown of  3H-Labeled Glucobrassicin, the Parent Indole Glucosinolate.  J. Agrid. Food Chem. 1997, 45, 4290-4296.

Chew, F.S. Biological Effects of Glucosinolates. In Biologically Active Natural Products: Potential Use in Agriculture;. Cutler, H.G., Ed. American Chemical Society: Washington, D.C., 1988a; pp 155-181.

Chew, F.S. Searching for Defensive Chemistry in the Cruciferrae, or, do Glucosinolates Always Control Interactions of Cruciferae with their Potential Herbivores and Symbionts? No! In Chemical Mediation of Coevolution. Spencer, K.C. Ed,; American Institute of Biological Sciences: 1988b; pp. 81-112.

Chiang, M.S., Chong, C., Chevrier, G., and Crete, R. Glucosinolates in Clubroot-resistant and -susceptible Selections of Broccoli. HortScience 1989, 24, 665-666.  

Chiang, W.C.K., Pusateri, D.J., and Leitz, R.E.A.  Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Sulforaphane and Sulforaphane Nitrile in Broccoli.  J. Agric. Food. Chem. 1998, 46, 1018-1021.

Chin, H.W. and Lindsay, R.C.Volatile Sulfur Compounds Formed in Disrupted Tissues of Different Cabbage Cultivars. J. Food Sci. 1993, 58, 835-841.

Chin, H.W. and Lindsay, R.C. Mechanisms of Formation of Volatile Sulfur Compounds following the Action of Cysteine Sulfoxide Lyases. J. Agric Food Chem. 1994, 42, 1529-1536.

Chipman, JK;Barcelo, S;Gescher, A, CYP2E1-mediated mechanism of anti-genotoxicity of the broccoli constituent sulforaphane - Response, CARCINOGENESIS,  18: (7) 1436-1436 JUL 1997 ISSN: 0143-3334

Chisholm, H. Biosynthesis of 3-Methoxycarbonylpropyl-Glucosinolate in an Erysimum species. Phytochemistry 1973, 12, 605-608.

Chistensen, B.W., KJæR, A., øgaard Madsen, J., Olsen, C.E., and Sørensen, H.   Mass-Spectrometric Characteristics of some Pertrimethyl-silylated Desulfoglucosinolates.  Tetra. 1982, 38, 353-357.

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Chong, C., Chiang, M.S., and Crete, R. Thiocyanate Ion Content in Relation to Clubroot Disease Severity in Cabbages. HortScience 1981, 16, 663-664.

Chropra, M. et al., In vitro antioxidant activity of lutein, 1992, in the book: Food and Cancer Prevention:  Chemical and Biological Aspects by Waldron, Johnson and Fenwick (Eds

Chung FL. Chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis by aromatic isothiocyanates. In: Wattenberg L, Lipkin M, Boone CW, Kelloff GJ, eds. Cancer Chemoprevention. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1992.  

Chung FL, Morse MA, Eklind KI, Lewis J. Quantitation of human uptake of the anticarcinogen phenethyl isothiocyanate after a watercress meal. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1992; 1: 383-88.  

Ciska E, Martyniak-Przybyszewska B, Kozlowska H,  Content of glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables grown at the same site for two years under different climatic conditions.  J Agric Food Chem 2000 Jul;48(7):2862-7

Claire Hall, Quality, Functional Foods & Health, Glucosinolate genetics and nutritional quality of horticultural brassicas, 3rd ISHS International Symposium on Brassicas 12th Crucifer Genetics Workshop held at Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, CV35 9EF, UK, 5th-9th September 2000, John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom,  Oral, os38
The anticarcinogenic activity of broccoli has been associated with the presence of methylsulphinylalkyl glucosinolates. Many other botanical forms of B.oleracea, and all forms of B. rapa (eg Chinese cabbage and Pak Choi), do not contain these glucosinolates, but contain alkenyl and hydroxyalkenyl glucosinolates, which are not associated with anticarcinogenic activity in cell culture assays.  In this paper, I describe the genetic regulation of glucosinolate side chain structure, and the mapping and cloning of the 'GSL-ALK' gene, which regulates the conversion of methylsulphinylalkyl toalkenyl glucosinolates. I conclude by discussing strategies to improve the quality of horticultural Brassica crops via both genetic modification and marker assisted breeding. [Alkenyl and hydroxyalkenyl glucosinolates are phase I inducers]

Clossais-Besnard, N. and Larher, F.  Physiological Role of Glucosinolates in Brassica napus. Concentration and Distribution Pattern of Glucosinolates and Among Plant Organs During a Complete Life Cycle.  J. Sci. Food Agric. 1991, 56, 25-38.

Cohen, J. H., Kristal, A. R., Stanford, J. L. (2000). Fruit and Vegetable Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 92: 61-68

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Cole, R.A. 1975. Isothiocyanates, nitriles and thiocyanates as products of autolysis of glucosinolates in Cruciferae. - Phytochemistry 15: 759-762. [Autolysis is the destruction of cell-comtents by enzymes produced in the cell.  This is due to the disordered metabolism of the cell, and may be caused by substances not normally present in the cell.]

Conn, E.E. Biosynthetic Relationship Among Cyanogenic Glycosides, Glucosinolates, and Nitro Compounds.  ACS Symposium Series 380 1988, 143-153.

Cottaz, S., Henrissat, B., and Driguez, H.  Mechanism-Based Inhibition and Stereochemistry of Glucosinolate Hydrolysis by Myrosinase.  Biochemistry 1996, 35, 15256-15259.

Crisp, P. (1976). Trends in the breeding and cultivation of cruciferous crops.  In: The biology and chemistry of the Cruciferae (Vauhan, J.G., Macleod, A.J. & Jones, B.M.G. (Eds), Academic Press, London, 69-118

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Danielak and Borkowski, 1969.  Biologically active compounds in seeds of crucifers Part III.  Chromatographical search for glucosinolates.  Dissertions in Pharmacy and Pharmacoloby 21, 563-575.

Dateo, G.P., Clapp, R.C., MacKay, D.A.M., Hewitt, E.J., and Hasselstrom, T. Identification of the Volatile Sulfur Components of Cooked Cabbage and the Nature of the Precursors in the Fresh Vegetable. Food Res. 1957, 22, 440-447.

Daun, J.K. Glucosinolate Analysis in Rapeseed and Canola - an Update. J. Jpn. Oil Chem. Soc. (Yakagaku). 1986, 35, 426-434.

Davis, J.B. Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) with Differential Levels of Glucosinolate Evaluated as a Green Manure Crop to Suppress Aphanomyces Root Rot of Peas (Pisumpisum sativum L.). Master's Thesis, 1988; University of Idaho.

Dawson, G.W., Doughty, K.J., Hick, A.J., Pickett, J.A., Pye, B.J., Smart, L.E., and Wadhams, L.J. Chemical Precursors for Studying the Effects of Glucosinolate Catabolites on Diseases and Pests of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) or Related Plants. Pestic. Sci. 1993, 39, 271-278.

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Rapid Detection of Inducers of Enzymes that Protect Against Carcinogens, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:2394-2398 (1992).

ISO 9167-1:1992 Rapeseed -- Determination of glucosinolates content --Part 1: Method using high-performance liquid chromatography or AOCS Ak1-92 (93) Glucosinolates.

Transformation and foreign gene expression in brassica species,  US Patent 5,188,958, February 23, 1993 

Methods for Glucosinolate Analysis, Methods in Plant Biochemistry, vol. 8, ISBN 0-12-461018-8, 1993.

Purification of the w-(Methylsulfinyl)alkyl Glucosinolate Hydrolysis Products: 1-Isothiocyanato-3-(Methylsulfinyl)Propane, 1-Isothiocyanato-4-(Methylsulfinyl)Butane, 4-(Methylsulfinyl)Butanenitrile, and 5-(Methylsulfinyl)Pentanenitrile from Broccoli and Lesquerella Fendleri, J. Agric. Food Chem., 1993, 41, 89-95.

Elevation of Serum Phase II Enzymes by Anticarcinogenic Enzyme Inducers: Makers for a Chemoprotected State? pp. 2441-2445, 1993.

Cancer Chemoprevention by Phytochemicals in Fruits and Vegetables, Chapter 1, 1994. (a book?)

Beyond Vitamins, Newsweek, Apr. 25, 1994, pp. 45-49.

1994 IFT Annual Meeting/Book of Abstracts, p. 217, 72-6.

Selective responsiveness of human breast cancer cells to indole-3-carbinol, a chemopreventive agent,  J Natl Cancer Inst (UNITED STATES) Jan 19 1994