Pathogens - Testing Sprout Safety Research

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"A fluorescent enzyme immunoassay for Salmonella detection", J Immunoassay 1988;9(1):83-95, Aleixo JA, Swaminathan B.

"A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid detection and identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in foods and bovine feces.", J Food Prot 2000 Aug;63(8):1032-7, Fratamico PM, Bagi LK, Pepe T., Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038, USA.

"A novel ELISA format for the rapid and sensitive detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem",  1998 Nov;62(11):2217-22, Giletto A, Fyffe JG., Lynntech, Inc., College Station, TX 77840, USA.

"A Rapid and Automated Fiber Optic-Based Biosensor Assay for the Detection of Salmonella in Spent Irrigation Water Used in the Sprouting of Sprout Seeds", Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 67, No. 1, pp. 46-5, Marianne F. Kramer,a and Daniel V. Lima. 

"An Improved Enrichment Broth for Isolation of Escherichia coli O157, with Specific Reference to Starved Cells, from Radish Sprouts",  Applied and Environmental Microbiology, March 2003, p. 1858-1860, Vol. 69, No. 3.

"Application of a molecular beacon-real-time PCR technology to detect Salmonella species contaminating fruits and vegetables" International Journal of Food Microbiology 95 (2004) 177- 187, Samantha Hu Liming, Arvind A. Bhagwat.

"Biosensors-based processes for detection of bacteria in the food processing environment" 2005 IFT Annual Meeting, July 15-20 - New Orleans, Louisiana, Session 6, Foodborne pathogens in the food processing environment and their control
S.-I. TU

"Characterization of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from radish and broccoli sprouts that exhibited a KG+ phenotype, lack of virulence and absence of a capsule."  Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007 May;44(5):481-7. Kawanishi M, Yoshida T, Kijima M, Yagyu K, Nakai T, Okada S, Endo A, Murakami M, Suzuki S, Morita H. National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan.

"Collaborative evaluation of detection methods for Escherichia coli O157:H7 from radish sprouts and ground beef.", Int J Food Microbiol 1999 Jan 12;46(1):27-36, Onoue Y, Konuma H, Nakagawa H, Hara-Kudo Y, Fujita T, Kumagai S., Kanagawa Prefectural Public Health Laboratory, Yokohama, Japan.

"Collaborative study of the MPN, Anderson-Baird-Parker direct plating, and hydrophobic grid-membrane filter methods for the enumeration of Escherichia coli biotype I in foods.", Can J Microbiol 1983 Oct;29(10):1247-52, Sharpe AN, Rayman MK, Burgener DM, Conley D, Loit A, Milling M, Peterkin PI, Purvis U, Malcolm S.

"Combination of immunomagnetic separation with real-time PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella in milk, ground beef, and alfalfa sprouts" March 2005, Journal of Food Protection Volume 68, Number 3, Page 557-561, Birce Mercanolu ; Mansel W. Griffiths

"Comparison of an Immunochromatographic Method and the TaqMan E. coli O157:H7 Assay for Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Alfalfa Sprout Spent Irrigation Water and in Sprouts After Blanching", Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology (2001) 27, 129-134.August 2001, Volume 27, Number 2, Pages 129-134, P M Fratamico and L K Bagi, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA.

"Comparison of Assurance Gold Salmonella EIA, BAX for Screening/Salmonella, and GENE-TRAK Salmonella DLP Rapid Assays for Detection of Salmonella in Alfalfa Sprouts and Sprout Irrigation Water", Diana S. Stewart, Karl F. Reineke, and Mary L. Tortorello, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, National Center for Food Safety and Technology, 6502 S. Archer Rd., Summit-Argo, IL  60501.

"Comparison of detection methods for Escherichia coli O157:H7 from artificially contaminated spent irrigation water from sprouted seeds"  2000. FDA lab bulletin 4205. FDA, Washington DC. S.D. Weagant, and A. J. Bound.

"Comparison of enrichment procedures for isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from ground beef and radish sprouts" 1999; Int J Food Microbiol. 50:211-214. Hara-Kudo Y, Onoue Y, Konuma H, Nakagawa H, Kumagai S.

"Comparison of primers for the detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli using real-time PCR"Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;41(2):112-8.
Barak JD, Sananikone K, Delwiche MJ., Produce Safety and Microbiology Research Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Albany, CA, USA.

"Detection of Escherichia coli in packaged alfalfa sprouts with an electronic nose and an artificial neural network" Journal of Food Protection Volume 69, Number 8, pp. 1844-1850(7), Siripatrawan, Ubonrat; Linz, John E.; Harte, Bruce R.

"Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce using molecular beacon-Real-time PCR technology" October 2004, J Food Sci 69(8):M240-5, Liming SH, Zhang Y, Meng J, Bhagwat AA

"Detection of Salmonella by Indicator Agar Media and PCR as Affected by Alfalfa Seed Homogenates and Native Bacteria", March 2003, Letters in Applied Microbiology, Volume 36 Issue 3 Page 152, C.-H. Liao and L.M. Shollenberger.

"Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium by Using a Rapid, Array-Based Immunosensor" Applied and Environmental Microbiology, January 2004, p. 152-158, Vol. 70, No. 1, Chris Rowe Taitt, Yura S. Shubin, Roselina Angel, and Frances S. Ligler.

"Detection of Salmonella in Alfalfa Sprouts by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction", 2002 FDA Science Forum, FDA: Building a Multidisciplinary Foundation, February 20-21, 2002, Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC, Poster Abstracts, Board T-06, Grisselle Martinez , Karlygash M. Yermukan, ORA, FDA, Alameda, CA.

"Detection of Salmonella in Alfalfa Sprout Spent Irrigation Waterby Rapid Immunoassays" M. L. Tororello, D. S. Stewart, K. F. Reineke and J. M. Ulaszek.

"Detection of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in food by plating methods and LAMP method: A collaborative study." 29.feb.08. International Journal of Food Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Saitama Institute of Public Health. Yukiko Hara-Kudo, Noriko Konishi, Kayoko Ohtsuka, Reiji Hiramatsu, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Hirotaka Konuma and Kosuke Takatori.

"Development of A Modified Enrichment Method for the Rapid Immunoassay of Escherichia coli O157 Strains in Fresh Cut Vegetables" Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2005, Pages 64-70, Chin-Cheng Huang, Ying-Rong Yang, Shwu-Meei Liau, Ping-Ping Chang and Chiang-Yang Cheng.

"Disposable Biosensor for Pathogen Detection in Fresh Produce Samples Biosystems Engineering", Volume 88, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 145-151. Z. Muhammad-Tahir and E. C. Alocilja, Biosystems Engineering Department Michigan State University, 204 Farrall Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1323, USA;

"Escherichia coli O26 detection from foods using an enrichment procedure and an immunomagnetic separation method.", Lett Appl Microbiol 2000 Feb;30(2):151-4, Hara-Kudo Y, Konuma H, Nakagawa H, Kumagai S. 

"Evaluation of a fiber-optic biosensor for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh produce" Yun-Yeh Lin and Tong-Jen Fu, Journal of Food Protection, 67(Supplement A):128, p236.

"Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh fruits and vegetables.", J Food Prot 2001 Jun;64(6):788-95, Shearer AE, Strapp CM, Joerger RD., Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark 19717, USA.

"Evaluation of Culture and Pcr Methods for Detecting Salmonella in Artificially Inoculated Alfalfa Seeds", Authors;  Liao, Ching-Hsing; Shollenberger, Lisa, Submitted to: Journal Of Food Protection, Publication Acceptance Date: April 12, 2002, Publication Date: N/A, Publisher's URL: LETTERS IN APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY 2003, 36, 152-156.

"Evaluation of ISO enrichment real-time PCR methods with internal amplification control for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica in fresh fruit and vegetables." Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009 Jul;49(1):105-11. Epub 2009 Apr 22. Badosa E, Chico N, Pla M, Parés D, Montesinos E.

"Evaluation of techniques for enrichment and isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from artificially contaminated sprouts.", Int J Food Microbiol 2001 Dec 4;71(1):87-92., Weagant SD, Bound AJ., Pacific Regional Laboratory Northwest, US Food and Drug Administration, Bothell, WA 98021, USA. v

"Factors influencing the detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds.", Int J Food Microbiol 2001 Dec 4;71(1):93-9, Wu FM, Beuchat LR, Wells JG, Slutsker L, Doyle MP, Swaminathan B., Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, Griffin 30223-1797, USA.

"Flow-through imaging cytometry for characterization of Salmonella subpopulations in alfalfa sprouts, a complex food system."Biotechnol J. 2009 Jun;4(6):880-7. Bisha B, Brehm-Stecher BF.

"Improved Template Preparation for PCR-Based Assays for Detection of Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens" Keith A. Lampel, Palmer A. Orlandi, and Leroy Kornegay, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. 20204.

"Interlaboratory validation of a real-time PCR 24-hour rapid method for detection of Salmonella in foods" J Food Prot. 2009 May;72(5):945-51, Cheng CM, Van Khanh T, Lin W, Ruby RM.

"In vivo detection of superoxide anion in bean sprout based on ZnO nanodisks with facilitated activity for direct electron transfer of superoxide dismutase." Anal Chem. 2008 Aug. 1;80(15):5839-46. Epub 2008 Jul 2. Deng Z, Rui Q, Yin X, Liu H, Tian Y., Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092, PR China.

"Mathematical modeling and assessment of microbial migration during the sprouting of alfalfa in trays in a nonuniformly contaminated seed batch using enterobacter aerogenes as a surrogate for Salmonella Stanley" Journal of Food Protection, Volume 70, Number 11, November 2007, pp. 2602-2605(4)
Liu, Bin; Schaffner, Donald W.

"Membrane filter method based on FC-5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide medium facilitates enumeration of Escherichia coli in foods and poultry carcass rinses.", J Food Prot 1998 Mar;61(3):360-4, Sharpe AN, Parrington LJ., Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Onatrio, Canada.

"Microbiological evaluation of vegetable sprouts and seeds". J. Food Prot. 54:560-562.Prokopowich, D., and G. Blank. 1991.

"Modification of Sorbitol MacConkey Medium Containing Cefixime and Tellurite for Isolation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Radish Sprouts",  Applied and Environmental Microbiology, July 2000, p. 3117-3118, Vol. 66, No. 7, Tomohiko Fujisawa,1, Shin Sata,1 Katsuhiro Aikawa,1 Takanori Takahashi,1 Shiro Yamai,1 and Toshio Shimada2, Kanagawa Prefectural Public Health Laboratory, Yokohama 241-0815,1 and National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640,2 Japan.

"Optimization and evaluation of a modified enrichment procedure combined with immunomagnetic separation for detection of E. coli O157:H7 from artificially contaminated alfalfa sprouts" Int J Food Microbiol. 2011 Oct 3;149(3):209-17. Epub 2011 Jul 5, Weagant SD, Jinneman KC, Yoshitomi KJ, Zapata R, Fedio WM. Food and Drug Administration, Retired, Poulsbo, WA, USA.

"Quantitative assessment of contamination of fresh food produce of various retail types by human-virulent microsporidian spores." Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jun;73(12):4071-3. Epub 2007 Apr 20. Jedrzejewski S, Graczyk TK, Slodkowicz-Kowalska A, Tamang L, Majewska AC.  Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.

"Rapid Detection of Outbreak Escherichia Coli 0157 and Salmonella in Alfalfa Sprouts by Immunomagnetic Capture and Time-Resolved Flourescence", Tu, Shu-I; Fett, William; Gehring, Andrew; Irwin, Peter, J. Food Safety 23:75-89

"Rapid combined assay for Salmonella detection in food samples", Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2000;47(4):445-56, Gado I, Major P, Kiraly M, Plaveczky MG.

"Selective Enrichment with a Resuscitation Step for Isolation of Freeze-Injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Foods" Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000 July; 66(7): 2866-2872.

"Simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella, and Shigella in apple cider and produce by a multiplex PCR", January 2004, Journal of Food Protection, Volume: 67 Number: 1 Page: 27 -- 33, Yong Li ; Azlin Mustapha.

"Simultaneous enrichment of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 and Salmonella in food samples using universal preenrichment broth."  J Food Prot. 2009 Oct;72(10):2065-70. Kanki M,Seto K, Sakata J, Harada T, Kumeda Y. Division of Bacteriology, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, 1-3-69 Nakamichi, Higashinari-ku, Osaka 537-0025, Japan.

"Spatial Distribution of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Other Bacterial Populations in Commercial and Laboratory-Scale Sprouting Mung Bean Beds" December 2005. Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 68, No. 12, pp. 2510-2518

"Survey of Retail Alfalfa Sprouts and Mushrooms for the Presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria with BAX, and Evaluation of this Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based System with Experimentally Contaminated Samples", February 2003, Journal of Food Protection  Volume: 66 Number: 2 Page: 182 -- 187, Christine M. Strapp ; Adrienne E. H. Shearer ; Rolf D. Joerger.

"The effect of Lactococcus lactis on the growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in alfalfa sprout broth" M. Pallmai and R. L. Buchanan, 2002, Acta Aliment. 31:379-392.

"Two Processing Methods for the Isolation of Salmonella from Naturally Contaminated Alfalfa Seeds", Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 64, No. 8, pp. 1240-1243., Gregory B. Inami, Sue Ming C. Lee, Robin W. Hogue, and Rita A. Brenden, California Department of Health Services, Microbial Diseases Laboratory, 2151 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, California 94704, USA (with comments by Bob Rust and Bob Sanderson.)

"Use of Green Fluorescent Protein Expressing Salmonella Stanley To Investigate Survival, Spatial Location, and Control on Alfalfa Sprouts",Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 64, No. 12, pp. 1891-1898. Megha Gandhi, Sherene Golding, Sima Yaron, and Karl R. Matthews, Cook College, Department of Food Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 

"Use of Spent Irrigation Water for Microbiological Analysis of Alfalfa Sprouts", Journal of Food Protection: June, 2001, Vol. 64, No. 6, pp. 802-806., T. Fu, D. Stewart, J Schlesser,and M. Tortorello, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, K. Reikeke and J. Ulaszek, Illinois Institute of Technology, National Center for Food Safety and Technology.