Seed Sanitation - Chemicals Sprout Safety Research

Some have advocated for the use of chemicals to ensure that sprouts are safe to eat. We have assembled important seed sanitation and chemical-related sprout safety research articles on this page.

"Application of Physical and Chemical Means to Kill Foodborne Pathogens on Alfalfa Seeds (2001)", C. Lu, S. O. Nelson, L. R. Beuchat, and M. A. Harrison

"Behavior of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Alfalfa Sprouts during the Sprouting Process as Influenced by Treatments with Various Chemicals", Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 62, No. 8, pp. 850-856., PETER J. TAORMINA and LARRY R. BEUCHAT-Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797, USA.

"Combined effects of chemical, heat and ultrasound treatments to kill Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds.", J Appl Microbiol 2002;92(4):668-74, Scouten AJ, Beuchat LR.,Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, 30223-1797, USA.

"Combined effects of water activity, temperature and chemical treatments on the survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds", J Appl Microbiol 2002;92(3):382-95, Beuchat LR, Scouten AJ., Department of Food Science and Technology, Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, USA.

"Combined efficacy of nisin and pediocin with sodium lactate, citric acid, phytic acid, and potassium sorbate and EDTA in reducing the Listeria monocytogenes population of inoculated fresh-cut produce"  J Food Prot. 2005 Jul;68(7):1381-7. Bari ML, Ukuku DO, Kawasaki T, Inatsu Y, Isshiki K, Kawamoto S.

"Comparison of Aqueous Chemical Treatments to Eliminate Salmonella on Alfalfa Seeds", October 2000, Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 63, No. 11, pp. 1475­1482., W. R. Weissinger and L. R. Beuchat, Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797, USA.

"Comparison of chemical treatments to kill Salmonella on alfalfa seeds destined for sprout production.", Int J Food Microbiol 1997 Mar 3;34(3):329-33, Beuchat LR., Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin 30223-1797, USA.

"Comparison of chemical treatments to eliminate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa seeds" J Food Prot. 1999 Apr;62(4):318-24. Taormina PJ, Beuchat LR.

"Comparison of Chlorine and a Prototype Produce Wash Product for Effectiveness in Killing Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Alfalfa Seeds", Journal of Food Protection: 2001, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 152-158. ,Larry R. Beuchat,  Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Thomas E. Ward and Charles A. Pettigrew, The Procter and Gamble Company, Sharon Woods Technical Center

"Effectiveness of Cetylpyridinium Chloride and Commercial Vegetable Wash Preparations on the Viability of Indigenous Bacterial Flora of Selected Fresh Produce", 2002 FDA Science Forum, FDA: Building a Multidisciplinary Foundation, February 20-21, 2002, Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC, Poster Abstracts, Board L-10, T. T. Tran, R. N. Matthews, C. R. Warner, and S. J. Chirtel. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, DC.

"Efficacy of Chemical Treatments in Eliminating Salmonella and Escherichia coil on Scarified and Polished Alfalfa Seeds," Holliday, Scouten, Beuchat, Journal of Food Protection, Vol 64, No 10, 2001

"Enhancement of the Microbiological Quality of Selected Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Disinfected by Chloramine, Chlorine, Ethanol, and Ozone", 2002 FDA Science Forum, FDA: Building a Multidisciplinary Foundation, February 20-21, 2002, Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC, Poster Abstracts, Board L-11, T. T. Tran, J. I. Uwaleke, R. L. Thunberg, C. R. Warner, and S. J. Chirtel. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C. 20204.

"Evaluation of Volatile Chemical Treatments for Lethality to Salmonella on Alfalfa Seeds and Sprouts", Journal of Food Protection: 2001, Vol. 64, No. 4, pp. 442-450., W. R. Weissiner, K. H. McWatters, and L. R. Beuchat, Center for Food Safety, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia 

"Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 on alfalfa seeds by levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate." J Food Prot. 2010 Nov;73(11):2010-7. Zhao T, Zhao P, Doyle MP. Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223, USA.

"Incidence and germicide sensitivity of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae O1 in alfalfa sprouts" 1999. J. Food Safety. 19:137-146. Castro-Rosas J. and E. F. Escartin.

"Inhibition of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria Monocytogenes in Mung Bean Sprouts by Chemical Treatment", July 2002, Journal of Food Protection Volume: 65 Number: 7 Page: p1088 -- p1092, Sun-Young Lee; Kyung-Mi Yun; J. Fellman; Dong-Hyun Kang, 

"Organic Acid and Hypochlorite Treatments for Sprouts; Efficacy of Novel Organic Acid and Hypochlorite Treatments for Eliminating Escherichia Coli O157:H7 from Alfalfa Seeds Prior to Sprouting", July 28 2000, International Journal of Microbiology 58: 73-82, M. M. Lang, B.H. Ingham, S.C. Ingham, Reprinted from International Journal of Microbiology, volume 58, M. M., Lang, B.H. Ingham, S.C. Ingham, Efficacy of novel organic acid and hypochlorite treatments for eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 from alfalfa seeds prior to sprouting.

"Reduction of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on Laboratory-Inoculated Alfalfa Seed with Commercial Citrus-Related Products", July 2003, Journal of Food Protection, Volume: 66 Number: 7 Page: 1158 - 1165, William F. Fett ; Peter H. Cooke, International Association for Food Protection

"Reduction of the native microflora on alfalfa sprouts during propagation by addition of antimicrobial compounds to the irrigation water", Int J Food Microbiol 2002 Jan 30;72(1-2):13-8, Fett WF., Plant Science and Technology Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA.

"Reduction of Salmonella on alfalfa seeds using peroxyacetic acid and a commercial seed washer is as effective as treatment with 20 000 ppm of Ca(OCl)2.", Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010 Oct;51(4):462-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2010.02929.x.; Buchholz A, Matthews KR. Department of Food Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8520, USA.