Sulforaphane and Its Analogues Inhibit CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 Activity Induced by Benzo

Sulforaphane and its analogues inhibit CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activity induced by benzo[a]pyrene.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2009 Jan;23(1):18-28.

Skupinska K, Misiewicz-Krzeminska I, Stypulkowski R, Lubelska K, Kasprzycka-Guttman T.

National Medicines Institute, Chelmska 30/34, Warsaw, Poland.

CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzymes metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the reactive oxyderivatives. PAHs can induce the activity of both enzymes, which increases its conversion and enhances risk of carcinogenesis. Thus, the inhibition of CYP enzymes is recognized as a cancer chemoprevention strategy. A well-known group of chemopreventive agents is isothiocyanates, which occur naturally in Brassica vegetables. In this paper, a naturally occurring sulforaphane and its two synthetic analogues isothiocyanate-2-oxohexyl and alyssin were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine whether the differences in the isothiocyanate structure change its ability to inhibit CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activity induced by benzo[a]pyrene in HepG2 and Mcf7 cells. Also a mechanistic study was performed including isothiocyanates' influence on CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 catalytic activity, enzymatic protein level, and AhR translocation. It was shown that both enzymes were significantly induced by benzo[a]pyrene, and isothiocyanates were capable of decreasing the induced activity. The inhibitory properties depend on the types of isothiocyanate and enzyme. In general, CYP1A2 was altered in the more meaningful way than CYP1A1 by isothiocyanates. Sulforaphane exhibited weak inhibitory properties, whereas both analogues were capable of inhibiting BaP-induced activity with the similar efficacy. The mechanistic study revealed that analogues decreased the CYP1A2 activity via the protein-level reduction and CYP1A1 directly. The results indicate that isothiocyanates can be considered as potent chemopreventive substances and the change in the sulforaphane structure increases its chemopreventive potency.


Note from ISS:  Several crucifer sprouts including broccoli sprouts are currently the most potent natural source of sulforaphane known.  They often produce 10 to 100 times the amount of sulforaphane as their corresponding mature vegetables. ("Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens.", Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997 Sep 16;94(19):10367-72.)